There is indeed. Iridium, Ruthenium, Palladium and Cobalt are the most used alloy metals for jewellery purposes. Rhodium is used for high-temperature resisting dies (such as those used in glass fibre manufacturing). Some notes on some of the four main alloys characteristics:
50 Iridium: most commonly used. Relatively soft, and usually needs a certain amount of cold working to harden it a bit.
100 Iridium: liked by many smiths as the best for hand fabrication. Harder than 50 Ir. Traditional (until the 1990s) US alloy, sometimes marked IRIDPLAT
50 Cobalt: Very hard, darker grey than Iridium; excellent for casting, since Cobalt gives the melt low viscosity. It can tarnish with exposure to high temperatures, and some smiths use this for decorative purposes. Otherwise it is sometimes rhodium-plated to make it bright white.
50 Ruthenium: Usually used for rings and other cold machined pieces, since it's bright white (not as much as Ir/Rh, but more than good enough) and quite hard. It's difficult to cast. This is the alloy used by a certain store with a famous blue box.
50 and 100 Palladium: Used predominantly in Japan - very soft and ductile, mainly used for casting.
If you want more info, here
there is a very good overview of the above, with much greater detail and more alloys (including the thermo-sensitive alloys used for tension settings).